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Priv.-Doz. Dr. Gerd-Uwe Flechsig

Research

 
Research Grants
 

We are very grateful to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), to the State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and to the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for financial support of our work!

                        

-> 1. Electrochemical Analysis of Nucleic Acids on Electrically Heated Electrodes, DFG-Project GR 1238/10-1, January 2001 to December 2002, 1st PI: P. Gründler, 2nd PI: G.-U. Flechsig
-> 2. Electrochemical Analysis by Means of Heated Bismuth Electrodes, DFG Project FL 384/2-1, September 2003 to August 2005, (together with P. Gründler)
-> 3. Electrochemical Identification of Nucleic Acids Fragments by Means of Covalently Attached Indicators on Electrically Heated DNA-Chips , DFG Project FL 384/3-1,  March 2004 to February 2006, (together with P. Gründler)
-> 4. Enzym-labelled DNA on Electrically Heated Electrodes, DFG Project FL 384/4-1, August 2005 to September 2007, (together with P. Gründler)
-> 5. Electrochemical Analysis by Means of Heated Bismuth Electrodes (part 2), DFG Project FL384/2-3, Begin November 2005
-> 6. Electrochemical Detection of Nucleic Acids Fragments on Electrically Heated DNA-Chips (part 2), DFG Project FL 384/3-3, May 2006 to November 2007
-> 7. Heated Electrodes for Electrochemical Analyses, Excellence Funding Program Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, October 2007 to December 2008
-> 8. Enzym-labelled DNA on Electrically Heated Electrodes (part 2), DFG project FL 384/4-2, Begin February 2008
-> 9. Biosensors with Heated Electrodes and New Electrochemial Labels, DFG Heisenberg Fellowship FL 384/7-1, Begin Summer 2008
-> 10. Osmiumtetroxide as a Versatile Electrochemical Label for Nucleic Acids, DFG Project FL 384/8-1, Begin April 2008
-> 11. eDNA - Electrochemical Analysis of DNA, BMBF Innovation Forum, January 2010 to June 2010 (together with L. Krüger, PVA-MV AG)
-> 12. Electrochemical Hybridization Sensors for RNA with Osmium Tetroxide as Marker, DFG Project FL 384/11-1, Begin April 2010
-> 13. Hic@re - Gesundheitsregion Ostseeküste, BMBF Linkage Project, Begin January 2011, our start-up company Gensoric GmbH is an involved partner.
-> 14. WK Potenzial - Nordic Diagnostic Alliance, BMBF Linkage Project, Begin January 2011, our start-up Gensoric GmbH is Principal Partner, and the University of Rostock is involved via the groups of L. Pagel and G.-U. Flechsig.
-> 15. Biosensors with Heated Electrodes and New Electrochemial Labels, DFG Heisenberg Fellowship FL 384/7-2, Begin Sept. 2011

Research Topics
 

www.hot-wire-electrochemistry.de

1. Hybridization of Nucleic Acids at Heated Electrodes / Electrochemical DNA Sensors

The formation of a duplex of two DNA single strands is called "hybridization". This event can be detected by means of electroactive substances. We enhance the selectivity of hybridization in order to detect even single base mismatches. The so-called melting temperature of a DNA double strand depends on the number of mismatches. At melting temperature, 50% of all double strands have separated. Moreover, the capture probes immobilized on an electrode surface can be regenerated by thermal denaturation. We apply heated electrodes to perform rapid temperature changes directly at the electrode surface. The temperature of the bulk solution remains unaffected.
Such experiments can be easily performed by heating the electrode directly.


This is a 25 µm diameter gold wire electrode (5 mm in length). This simple design already allows many interesting studies regarding the electrochemical DNA hybridization detection.


In the example depicted above, we hybridized 80 nM DNA targets for 4 min with DNA capture probes. The capture probes had been immobilized before onto a gold wire electrode. The gold wire was heated during the hybridization while leaving the bulk solution at const. 3 °C (ice bath). The target strands were labelled with ferrocene. The dramatic effect of hybridization temperature is clearly visible.


2. Osmium Tetroxide as an Electroactive label for Nucleic Acids

We conduct basic studies regarding a novel method for fast and easy labelling of nucleic acids. Electroactive osmium tetroxide complexes react with nucleic acids single strands. Our novel approach is to use a protective strand for keeping the target DNA able for hybridization with capture probes. The analysis of double-stranded DNA such as products of the polymerase chain reaction is of particular interest. The problem is to couple separation, protection and labelling of the double stranded target DNA.

              

Left: Reaction of the osmium tetroxide complex with thymine. Right: Scheme of the labelling of target DNA with osmium tetroxide complexes by means of protective strands (1 and 2). Hybridization of the labelled targets with the immobilized capture probes on the electrode surface using a protective strand (3 and 4).

The following Figure displays electrochemical detection signals of osmium-labelled products of polymerase chain reaction:


The peak-shaped signals belong to the reduction of the osmium label. Selectivity can be dramatically enhanced by adjusting stringent hybridization temperature. Measurements have been performed using squarewave-voltammetry.

 

3. Atomic  Force Microscopy at heated Electrodes
 
 

Papers in Scientific Journals
-> 1. K. Marin and G.-U. Flechsig, "Papierverzuckerung - Die Gewinnung von Zucker und Alkohol aus Altpapier mit Hilfe von Dünnsäure, CLB Memory in: Chemie in Labor und Biotechnik 44 (1993) 1.
-> 2. P. Gründler and G.-U. Flechsig, "Deposition and stripping at heated microelectrodes. Arsenic(V) at gold electrode", Electrochimica Acta 43 (1998) 3451-3458.
-> 3. J. Wang, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, M. Jasinski, J. Lu, J. Wang, Z. Zhao, B. Tian, "Hot-wire Stripping Potentiometric Measurements of Trace Mercury", Anal. Chim. Acta 396 (1999) 33-37.
-> 4. T. Voss, P. Gründler, A. Kirbs, G.-U. Flechsig, "Temperature Pulse Voltammetry: Hot Layer Electrodes Made by LTCC Technology"; Electrochemistry Communications 1 (1999) 383-388.
-> 5. J. Wang, M. Jasinski, G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, B. Tian, "Hot-wire Amperometric Monitoring of Flowing Streams", Talanta 50 (2000), 1205-1210.
-> 6. A. Schneider, G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, "Electrically Heated Cylindrical Mikroelectrodes: Comparison of Temperature Profiles obtained by IR Photography and Digital Simulation", J. Electrochem. Soc. 147 (2000) 3768.
-> 7. J. Wang, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, M. Jasinski, G. A. Rivas, E. Sahlin, J. L. Lopez Paz, "DNA-Analysis at Heated Carbon Paste Electrodes", Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 3752-3756.
-> 8. M. Jasinski, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, "Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with a Heated Mercury Film on a Screen-printed Carbon Electrode", Electroanalysis 13 (2001) 34-36.
-> 9. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, P. Gründler, Investigation of Deposition and Stripping Phenomena at the Heated Gold Wire Electrode in Comparison to the Rotating Disk Electrode: Copper(II), Mercury(II) and Arsenic(III), Electroanalysis 13 (2001), 786-788.
-> 10. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbout, S. B. Hocevar, Sompong Thongngamdee, B. Ogorevc, P. Gründler, J. Wang, Electrically Heated Bismuth-Film Electrode for Voltammetric Stripping Measurements of Trace Metals. Electroanalysis 14 (2002) 192-196.
-> 11. C. Prado, G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, J. S. Foord, F. Marken, R. G. Compton, Electrochemical analysis of nucleic acids at boron-doped diamond electrodes, Analyst 127 (2002) 329.
-> 12. J. Wang, G.-U. Flechsig, A. Erdem, O. Korbut, P. Gründler, Label-free DNA Hybridization based on Coupling of a Heated Carbon Paste Electrode with Magnetic Separations, Electroanalysis 16 (2004) 928.
-> 13. M. Buckova, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric detection of daunomycin at a bismuth bulk electrode, Electroanalysis 17 (2005) 440.
-> 14. G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Peter, G. Hartwich, J. Wang, P. Gründler, DNA Hybridization Detection at Heated Electrodes, Langmuir 21 (2005) 7848,
abstract, full text.
-> 15. C. Lau, G.-U. Flechsig*, P. Gründler, J. Wang*, Electrochemistry of Nicotinamide Adenosine Dinucleotide (reduced) at Heated Platinum Electrodes, Anal. Chim. Acta 554 (2005) 74.
abstract.
-> 16. G.-U. Flechsig*, M. Kienbaum, P. Gründler, Ex situ atomic force microscopy of bismuth film deposition at carbon paste electrodes, Electrochemistry Communications 7 (2005) 1091,
abstract
.
-> 17. G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Peter, K. Voss, P. Gründler, Electrochemical DNA hybridization detection using the fluorescence quenching label dabcyl, Electrochemistry Communications 7 (2005) 1059.
-> 18. M. Buckova, A. Zajac, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Self-Assembled Monolayers on Bismuth Electrodes, Electrochemistry Communications 8 (2006) 932,
abstract
-> 19. P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Principles and Analytical Applications of Heated Electrodes, Microchim. Acta 154 (2006) 175, invited review article,
abstract.
-> 20. G.-U. Flechsig*, Th. Reske, Electrochemical Detection of DNA-Hybridization by Means of Osmium Tetroxide Complexes and Protective Oligonucleotides, Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 2125,
abstract
, full text.
-> 21. F. Wachholz, J. Gimsa, H. Duwensee, H. Grabow, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig*, A compact and versatile instrument for radio frequency heating in non-isothermal electrochemical studies, Electroanalysis 19 (2007) 535,
abstract.
-> 22. J. Peter, Th. Reske, G.-U. Flechsig*, Comparison of DNA hybridization at heated and rotating gold disk electrodes, Electroanalysis 19 (2007) 1356,
abstract.
-> 23. H. Duwensee, M. Adamovski, G.-U. Flechsig*, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric detection of daunomycin at mercury and bismuth alloy electrodes, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2 (2007) 498,
Full text.
-> 24.Th. Reske, M. Mix, H. Bahl, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of osmium tetroxide labeled PCR products by means of protective strands, Talanta 74 (2007) 393, invited research article.
abstract
-> 25. F. Wachholz, K. Biała, M. Piekarz, G.-U. Flechsig*, Short temperature pulse modulated amperometry at compact electrochemical sensors, Electrochem. Commun. 9 (2007) 2346,
abstract.
-> 26. J. S. Long, D. S. Silvester, G. G. Wildgoose, A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, R. G. Compton*, Direct Electrochemistry of Horseradish Peroxidase Immobilized in a Chitosan-[C4mim][BF4] film; Determination of Electrode Kinetic Parameters, Bioelectrochemistry 74 (2008) 183,
abstract.
-> 27. H. Sopha, F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig*, Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of tRNA by labelling with osmium tetroxide, Electrochem. Commun. 10 (2008) 1614,
abstract.
-> 28. H. Duwensee, T. Vázquez-Alvarez, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, Thermally induced electrode protection against biofouling, Talanta 77 (2009) 1757,
abstract.
-> 29. A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of DNA melting curves by means of heated biosensors, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 1119,
abstract.
-> 30. N. Mahnke, A. Markovic, H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig*, U. van Rienen*, Numerically optimized shape of directly heated electrodes for minimal temperature gradients, Sensors & Actuators B - Chemical 137 (2009) 363,
abstract.
-> 31. M. Mix, T. Reske, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of asymmetric PCR products by labeling with osmium tetroxide, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 826,
abstract.
-> 32. H. Duwensee, M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical competitive hybridization assay for DNA detection using osmium tetroxide-labelled signalling strands, Analyst 134 (2009) 899,
abstract.
-> 33. S. Balasubramanian, D. Kagan, K. M. Manesh, P. Calvo-Marzal, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, Thermal Modulation of Nanomotor Movement, Small 5 (2009) 1569,
abstract.
-> 34. T. Reske, A.-E. Surkus, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig*, Kinetics of the labelling reactions of thymine, cytosine and uracil with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Microchimica Acta 166 (2009) 197,
abstract.
-> 35. H. Duwensee, M. Mix, I. Broer, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of modified maize gene sequences by multiplexed labeling with osmium tetroxide bipyridine, Electrochem. Commun. 11 (2009) 1487,
abstract.
-> 36. F. Wachholz, H. Duwensee, R. Schmidt, M. Zwanzig, J. Gimsa,*, S. Fiedler,*, G.-U. Flechsig*, Template-free galvanic nanostructuring of gold electrodes for sensitive electrochemical biosensors, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 2153,
abstract.
-> 37. P. Calvo-Marzal, K. M. Manesh, D. Kagan, S. Balasubramanian, M. Cardona, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Posner, J. Wang*, Electrochemically-triggered motion of catalytic nanomotors, Chem. Commun. (2009) 4509,
abstract.
-> 38. H. Duwensee, M. Mix, M. Stubbe, J. Gimsa, M. Adler, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical Product Detection of an Asymmetric Convective Polymerase Chain Reaction, Biosens. Bioelectron. 25 (2009) 400,
abstract.
-> 39. D. Kagan, P. Calvo-Marzal, S. Balasubramanian, S. Sattayasamitsathit, K. M. Manesh, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang*, Chemical Sensing Based on Catalytic Nanomotors: Motion-Based Detection of Trace Silver, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 31 (2009) 12082,
abstract.
-> 40. T.-F. Tseng, Y.-L. Yang, M.-C. Chuang, S.-L. Lou, M. Galik, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, Thermally Stable Improved First-Generation Glucose Biosensors based on Nafion/Glucose-Oxidase Modified Heated Electrodes, Electrochem. Commun. 11 (2009) 1819,
abstract.
-> 41. K. Y. Chumbimuni-Torres, C. Thammakhet, M. Galik, P. Calvo-Marzal, J. Wu, E. Bakker*, G.-U. Flechsig*, J. Wang*, High Temperature Potentiometry: Modulated Response of Ion-Selective Electrodes During Heat Pulses, Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 10290.
abstract.
-> 42. M. Jacobsen, H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, M. Adamovski, G.-U. Flechsig*, Directly heated bismuth film electrodes based on gold microwires, Electroanalysis 22 (2010) 1483.
abstract.
-> 43. H. Duwensee, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig*, Sequence-specific Electrochemical Detection of Nucleic Acids in Real Samples, Bioanalytical Reviews 2 (2010) 103, invited review article,
abstract.
-> 44. K. Y. Chumbimuni-Torres, J. Wu, C. Clawson, M. Galik, A. Walter, G.-U. Flechsig, E. Bakker,* L. Zhang,* J. Wang*, Amplified potentiometric transduction of DNA hybridization using ion-loaded liposomes, Analyst 135 (2010) 1618,
abstract.
-> 45. J. Choina, H. Duwensee, G. -U. Flechsig, H. Kosslick, A. W. Morawski, V. A. Tuan and A. Schulz*, Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical from water by photocatalytic treatment, Central European Journal of Chemistry 8 (2010) 1288,
abstract.
-> 46. A. Walter, Jie Wu*, G.-U. Flechsig, D. A. Haake, J. Wang*, Redox cycling amplified electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization: Application to pathogen E. coli bacterial RNA, Anal. Chim. Acta 689 (2011) 29,
abstract.
-> 47. D. Kagan, S. Campuzano, S. Balasubramanian, F. Kuralay, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang*, Functionalized Micromachines for Selective and Rapid Isolation of Nucleic Acid Targets from Complex Samples, Nano Letters 11 (2011) 2083,
abstract.
-> 48. G. Woldemichael, T. Tulu, G.-U. Flechsig*, Solar UV-Photo-oxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping-Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water, International Journal of Electrochemistry 2011 (2011) Article ID 481370,
full text.
-> 49. M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig*, Temperature Control in Electrochemical DNA Sensing, Current Physical Chemistry 1 (2011) 292, invited review article,
fulltext.
-> 50. G.-U. Flechsig*, A. Walter, Electrically Heated Electrodes: Practical Aspects and New Developments, Electroanalysis 24 (2012) 23, invited review article.
abstract.
-> 51. M. Mix, J. Rüger, S. Krüger, I. Broer, G.-U. Flechsig*, Electrochemical detection of 0.6 percent genetically modified maize MON810 in real flour samples, Electrochem. Commun. 22 (2012) 137,
abstract.
-> 52. J. Choina, H. Kosslick, C. Fischer, G. -U. Flechsig, L. Frunza, A. Schulz*, Photocatalytic decomposition of pharmaceutical ibuprofen pollutions in water over titania catalyst, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 129 (2012) 589,
abstract.
-> 53. G. Woldemichael, T. Tulu, G.-U. Flechsig*, Solar UV-assisted sample preparation of river water for ultra-trace determination of uranium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Microchimica Acta 179 (2012) 99,
abstract.
-> 54. M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig*, Hybridization detection of osmium tetroxide bipyridine-labelled DNA and RNA on heated gold wire electrodes, Electroanalysis 25 (2013) 373,
abstract.
-> 55. A. Walter, A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig*, Sequence-specific detection of enzyme-labeled DNA at electrically heated electrodes, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2013) online, invited research article,
abstract.
-> 56. J. Choina, H. Duwensee, H. Kosslick, A.Schulz*, G.-U. Flechsig*, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of tetracycline in aqueous samples at the ultra-trace level, (2013) submitted.
-> 57. G. Woldemichael, G.-U. Flechsig*, Solar UV-assisted pre-treatment of river water samples for the voltammetric monitoring of nickel and cobalt ultratraces, (2013) submitted.
-> 58. Aly Hafez, U. Koch, G.-U. Flechsig*, ToF-Secondary Ion Mass-spectrometric Study of Copper Deposition and Stripping on Directly Heated Screen-printed Gold Electrodes (2013) submitted, invited research article.

Patents and pending Patents
-> 1. P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, M. Jasinski, O. Korbut, J. Wang, Verfahren und elektrochemischer Sensor mit geheizten Elektroden für die biochemische Analytik, insbesondere zur Untersuchung von Hybridisierungsvorgängen der Nukleinsäuren, DE Patent 199 60 398 B4 (1999).
-> 2. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, J. Wang, Analyse-Array mit heizbaren Elektroden und Verfahren für die chemische und biochemische Analytik, DE Patent 10 2004 017 750 B4 (2004), JP Patent 2007/506655, Int. patent application WO 2005/098438
-> 3. G.-U. Flechsig, J. Peter, Verfahren und Array zur Replizierung und Analytik von Nukleinsäuren, DE Patent 10 2005 007 148 (2005), Int. patent application 2006.
-> 4. G.-U. Flechsig, Th. Reske, Verfahren zur Markierung und Analyse von Nukleinsäuren, DE Patent 10 2005 039 726 B3, EP-Patent 1 915 464 B1, US-Patent 8,216,446.
-> 5. G.-U. Flechsig, J. Gimsa, P. Gründler, H. Grabow, Vorrichtung mit geheiztem elektrochemischem Sensor, DE Patent 10 2006 006 347 B3 (2006), US-Patent 8,211,291.
-> 6. G.-U. Flechsig, H. Duwensee, J. Wang, Verfahren zur elektrochemischen Behandlung einer Sensorvorrichtung, Patent application DE 10 2008 020 802.7 (2008).
-> 7. G.-U. Flechsig, A. Walter, M. Jacobsen, Elektrochemischer Sensor, Patent application DE 10 2011 109 402.8 (2011).
-> 8. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Mix, S. Krüger, Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur sequenzspezifischen Analyse von Nukleinsäuren, DE Patent 10 2011 114 984 (2011).

Meeting Abstracts
-> 1. P. Gründler, O. Korbut, G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang, Direkt geheizte Elektroden in der Bioelektrochemie in: J. Russow, H. J. Schäferer (Hrsg.), GDCh-Monographie Bd. 23, GDCh Frankfurt 2002, 345.
-> 2. G.-U. Flechsig, Heated electrodes for the detection of DNA-hybridization, Abstracts of Papers of the ACS 229 U146 357-ANYL Part 1, MAR 13 2005.

Posters
-> 1. G.-U. Flechsig, K. Marin, Die radioaktive Familie des Elementes Thorium in Gasglühkörpern, Bundeswettbewerb Jugend forscht 1991 Würzburg, Germany.
-> 2. G.-U. Flechsig, K. Marin, Papierverzuckerung - Die Gewinnung von Zucker und Alkohol aus Altpapier mit Hilfe von Dünnsäure, Bundeswettbewerb Jugend forscht 1992 Duisburg, Germany.
-> 3. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Bestimmung von Arsen(V) an einer elektrisch geheizten Goldelektrode. 3. Doktorandentreffen der Elektroanalytiker 1997 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany.
-> 4. M. Jasinski, G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Erste Untersuchungen zum Einsatz der Hotwire-Electrochemistry bei der Charakterisierung von Schwermetallspezies. ELACH 3 1997 Zeuthen bei Berlin, Germany.
-> 5. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Speciation of arsenic(III)/(V) by stripping voltammetry at a heated gold electrode, ESEAC '98 Coimbra/ Portugal.
-> 6. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Jasinski, P. Gründler, J. Wang, E. Sahlin, G. Rivas; An Electrically Heated Carbon Paste Electrode: Determination of DNA, RNA and Oligomeric Nucleic Acids. ELACH 4 1999 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany.
-> 7. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, P. Gründler; Investigation of Deposition and Stripping Phenomena at the Heated Gold Wire Electrode in Comparison to the Rotating Disk Electrode: Copper(II), Mercury(II) and Arsenic(III), ESEAC 2000 Bonn, Germany.
-> 8. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, P. Gründler, M. Jasinski, J. Wang; Electrically Heated Biosensors, ESEAC 2000 Bonn, Germany. 
-> 9. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, J. Wang, S. B. Hocevar, P. Gründler, Stripping-Analyse an elektrisch geheizten Bismutfilmelektroden, ELACH 5 2001 Freiburg, Germany.
-> 10. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, P. Gründler, J. Wang, A. Erdem, The Heated Electrode as a Tool for Nucleic Acids Analysis, Biosystems Biotechnology Bioengineering International Conference and Exhibition 2002 Rostock, Germany.
-> 11. P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, C. Lau, A. Surkus, M. Buckova, The heated bismuth electrode: A most versatile voltammetric sensor, ESEAC 2004 Galway, Ireland.
-> 12. M. Buckova, G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric detection of daunomycin at bismuth electrode, ESEAC 2004 Galway, Ireland.
-> 13. M. Kienbaum, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, Rasterkraftmikroskopie auf heizbaren Elektroden, GDCh-Jahrestagung 2005 Düsseldorf.
-> 14. J. Peter, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, Einfluss von Konvektion und Temperatur auf die Hybridisierung von Nukleinsäuren an Au-Elektroden, GDCh-Jahrestagung 2005 Düsseldorf.
-> 15. Th. Reske, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung an geheizten Elektroden mit Hilfe von Osmiumverbindungen, GDCh-Jahrestagung 2005 Düsseldorf.
-> 16. M. Buckova, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, Entwicklung und Verwendung der Bismut-Elektroden in analytischer Chemie, GDCh-Jahrestagung 2005 Düsseldorf.
-> 17. Th. Reske, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, DNA Hybridization at gold electrodes using osmium complexes, International Conference on Electrochemical Sensors, Matrafüred, Hungary, 2005.
-> 18. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Kienbaum, P. Gründler, Atomic force microscopy on heated electrodes, International Conference on Electrochemical Sensors, Matrafüred, Hungary, 2005.
-> 19. J. Peter, P. Gründler, G.-U. Flechsig, Comparison of DNA hybridization detection at heated wire and rotating gold disk electrodes, International Conference on Electrochemical Sensors, Matrafüred, Hungary, 2005.
-> 20. F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig, Novel compact instrument for indirectly and directly heating of electrodes, ESEAC 2006 Bordeaux, France.
-> 21. J. Peter, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical Determination of Dabcyl and Dabcyl-labeled Oligonucleotides at Mercury and Gold Electrodes, ESEAC 2006 Bordeaux, France.
-> 22. H. Duwensee, M. Adamovski, G.-U. Flechsig, Adsorptive Stripping Detection of Daunomycin at Bismuth/Gold and Amalgam Electrodes, ESEAC 2006 Bordeaux, France.
-> 23. A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Enzymatic Amplified Electrochemical Detection of DNA with Heated Electrodes, ESEAC 2006 Bordeaux, France.
-> 24. F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig, Neuartiges Instrument für das direkte und indirekte Heizen von Elektroden, ELACH 7 2006, Meinsberg.
-> 25. A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Nachweis der DNA-Hybridisierung an indirekt elektrisch heizbaren LTCC-Goldelektroden, ELACH 7 2006, Meinsberg.
-> 26. T. Reske, G.-U. Flechsig, Elektrochemische Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung an langkettigen DNA-Fragmenten mit Hilfe von [OsO4(bipy)], ELACH 7 2006, Meinsberg.
-> 27. H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, G.-U. Flechsig, Elektrochemische Mehrfachdetektierung von DNA-Hybridisierungen mittels eines selektiv heizbaren Elektrodenarrays, ELACH 7 2006, Meinsberg.
-> 28. T. Reske, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, Elektrochemische Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung an langkettigen DNA-Fragmenten mit Hilfe von [OsO4(bipy)], Doktorandentagung der FG Analytische Chemie der GDCh 2007, Siegen, Germany.
-> 29. A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Enzymmarkierte DNA zur Detektierung der Hybridisierung an geheizten Elektroden, ANAKON 2007, Jena, Germany.
-> 30. M. Mix, T. Reske, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical detection of the hybridization of [OsO4(bipy)]-labeled target-DNA to immobilized probes on goldelectrodes, VAAM Annual Meeting 2007, Osnabrück, Germany.
-> 31. T. Reske, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, Ein elektrochemischer Hybridisierungssensor für PCR-Fragmente, 2. Doktorandentagung der GDCh-Fachgruppe Analytische Chemie, 2008, Attendorn, Germany.
-> 32. T. Reske, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, An Electrochemical Hybridization Sensor for PCR Fragments, 10. Frühjahrssymposium der GDCh Jungchemiker 2008, Rostock, Germany.
-> 33. F. Wachholz, T. Reske, G.-U. Flechsig, Temperature in Electrochemistry – Analytical applications with heated electrodes, 10. Frühjahrssymposium der GDCh Jungchemiker 2008, Rostock, Germany.
-> 34. A.-E. Surkus, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig, Detection of DNA hybridization with Au/Bi alloy electrodes, ESEAC 2008, Prague, Czech Republic.
-> 35. H. Duwensee, F. Wachholz, A. Markovic, U. van Rienen, G.-U. Flechsig, Thermal behaviour of heated electrodes, ESEAC 2008, Prague, Czech Republic.
-> 36. A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical detection of DNA melting curves by means of heated biosensors, Satellite Symposium to ESEAC 2008, Brno, Czech Republic.
-> 37. M. Mix, H. Duwensee, I. Broer, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical detection of genetically modified plants by means of heated electrodes, ACS National Meeting 2009, Salt Lake City, USA.
-> 38. H. Duwensee, T. Vázquez-Alvarez, J. Wang, G.-U. Flechsig, Combined thermal and electrochemical pretreatment to minimize electrode fouling, ELECTROCHEM 2009, Manchester, UK.
-> 39. M. Jacobsen, H. Duwensee, M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, Influence of the temperature upon DNA-hybridization on heated gold-electrodes, ELECTROCHEM 2009, Manchester, UK.
-> 40. A. Walter, A.-E. Surkus, G.-U. Flechsig, Enzyme-labelled DNA at Electrically Heatable Electrodes, ESEAC 2010, Gijon, Spain.
-> 41. G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang, Electro-catalytically propelled nanomotors for new microfluidics and chemical sensing approaches, Electrochemistry 2010, Bochum, Germany.
-> 42. M. Mix, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical detection of genetically modified maize in real samples, 61st ISE Annual Meeting 2010, Nice, France.
-> 43. M. Jacobsen, G.-U. Flechsig, Controlling the temperature during DNA hybridization at heated gold wire electrodes, 61st ISE Annual Meeting 2010, Nice, France.
-> 44. G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang, Electro-catalytically propelled nanomotors for chemical sensing approaches, 9th ISE Spring Meeting 2011, Turku, Finland.

Lectures
-> 1. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Speziierung von Arsen(III)/(V) an elektrisch geheizten Goldelektroden, 4. Doktorandentreffen der Elektroanalytiker 1998 Leipzig, Germany.
-> 2. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Jasinski, P. Gründler, J. Wang, E. Sahlin, G. Rivas, Bestimmung von DNA, RNA und oligomeren Nukleinsären an elektrisch geheizten Kohlepasteelektroden. 5. Doktorandentreffen der Elektroanalytiker 1999 Bochum, Germany.
-> 3. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, O. Korbut, J. Wang, Direkt geheizte Elektroden in der Bioelektrochemie, GDCh-Jahrestagung 2001 Würzburg, Germany.
-> 4. G.-U. Flechsig, O. Korbut, P. Gründler, A. Erdem, J. Wang, Hybridization of Nucleic Acids at Heated Electrodes, ESEAC 2002 Cracow, Poland.
-> 5. G.-U. Flechsig, Hybridization of DNA at Heated Electrodes Using Redoxlabeled Targets, Doktorandenseminar des Institutes für Analytische Chemie der Universität Leipzig 2002 Großbothen, Germany.
-> 6. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Selbstorganisierende Monolagen zur elektrochemischen Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung, ELACH 6 2003 Wien, Austria.
-> 7. G.-U. Flechsig, P. Gründler, Sensitivity Enhancement of DNA Hybridization Detection by Electrode Heating, ESEAC 2004 Galway, Ireland.
-> 8. G.-U. Flechsig, Heated electrodes for the detection of DNA hybridization, ACS National Meeting 2005, San Diego, USA.
-> 9. G.-U. Flechsig, "Hot" bioelectronic DNA detection, Arizona State University, The Biodesign Institute, 2005, Tempe, USA, invited lecture.
-> 10. G.-U. Flechsig, Th. Reske, Electrochemical Detection of DNA-hybridization by means of Osmium Tetroxide Complexes Using Protecting Strands, ESEAC 2006 Bordeaux, France.
-> 11. G.-U. Flechsig, Kovalent gebundene Marker und alternative Elektrodenmaterialien zur elektrochemischen Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung, ELACH 7 2006, Meinsberg, Germany.
-> 12. G.-U. Flechsig, Anlytical applications of heated electrodes, Bunsenkolloquium, 2007, Dresden, Germany, invited lecture.
-> 13. G.-U. Flechsig, Basics and applications of heated electrodes, Arizona State University, The Biodesign Institute, 2007, Tempe, USA, invited lecture..
-> 14. G.-U. Flechsig, Analytik von Nukleinsäuren an geheizten Elektroden, Chemiedozententagung, 2007, Halle (Saale), Germany.
-> 15. G.-U. Flechsig, Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung an geheizten Elektroden - Elektrochemische Schmelzkurven, ANAKON 2007, Jena, Germany.
-> 16. G.-U. Flechsig, Electrically heated biosensors, Inst. of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 2007, Brno, Czech Republic, invited lecture.
-> 17. G.-U. Flechsig, Bismuth bulk electrodes – electric heating, bismuth alloys and self-assembled monolayers, National Institute of Chemistry, 2007, Ljubljana, Slovenia, invited lecture.
-> 18. G.-U. Flechsig, Neue Elektroden und elektrochemische Marker zur Detektierung der DNA-Hybridisierung, 2007, University of Regensburg, Germany, invited lecture.
-> 19. G.-U. Flechsig, Neue Elektroden und elektrochemische Marker zur Detektierung von Nukleinsäuren, 2007, Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck, Germany, invited lecture.
-> 20. G.-U. Flechsig, Elektrochemische Detektion von PCR-Produkten durch Markierung mit Osmiumtetroxidkomplexen, Chemiedozententagung, 2008, Kaiserslautern.
-> 21. G.-U. Flechsig, Neuartige Elektroden und elektrochemische Marker für Fließsysteme und Biosensoren, Juni 2008, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, invited lecture.
-> 22. F. Wachholz, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig, Enhancement of amperometric signals by means of heated sensors, ESEAC 2008, Prague, Czech Republic.
-> 23. M. Mix, T. Reske, H. Duwensee, G.-U. Flechsig, Electrochemical detection of PCR-products by labelling with osmium tetroxide, Satellite Symposium to ESEAC 2008, Brno, Czech Republic, invited lecture.
-> 24. G.-U. Flechsig, Heated Electrodes for Electrochemical Detection, University of California, San Diego, 2008, La Jolla, USA, invited lecture.
-> 25. G.-U. Flechsig, Self-cleaning electrodes and redoxactive labels for electrochemical detectors and biosensors, University of Cincinnati, 2009, USA, invited lecture.
-> 26. G.-U. Flechsig, Heated and nanostructured electrochemical biosensors, University of Rhode Island, 2009, Kingston, USA, invited lecture.
-> 27. G.-U. Flechsig, H. Duwensee, J. Wang, High Temperature Electrochemistry at Nanostructured Electrodes, ELECTROCHEM 2009, Manchester, UK.
-> 28. G.-U. Flechsig, Geheizte und nanostrukturierte elektrochemische Biosensoren, March 2010, Technische Universität Graz, Austria, invited lecture.
-> 29. G.-U. Flechsig, J. Wang, Catalytically Propelled Nanomotors, Curtin University of Technology, April 2010, Perth, Australia, invited lecture.
-> 30. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Mix, M. Jacobsen, H. Duwensee, Reactivity of Osmium Tetroxide Labels in Electrochemical DNA and RNA Detection, ESEAC 2010, Gijon, Spain.
-> 31. G.-U. Flechsig, H. Duwensee, M. Mix, Hot wires for thermo-convective PCR with electrochemical product detection, 61st ISE Annual Meeting 2010, Nice, France, invited lecture.
-> 32. G.-U. Flechsig, M. Mix, Elektrochemische Detektion gentechnisch veränderter Pflanzen, Chemiedozententagung, 2011, Mainz.
-> 33. G.-U. Flechsig, Amperometry and Potentiometry with Rapid Thermal Modulation, Matrafüred 2011 – International Conference on Electrochemical Sensors, Dobogokö, Hungary, invited lecture.
-> 34. G.-U. Flechsig, Heated and nanostructured electrochemical biosensors, University of Siegen, 2012, invited lecture.
-> 35. G.-U. Flechsig, A. Walter, Enzyme Labels for DNA-Hybridization Detection on Heated Electrodes, 45th Heyrovsky Discussion, 2012, Brno, Czech Republic, invited lecture.
-> 36. G.-U. Flechsig, Biosensors based on heated electrodes and self-propelled nanomotors, Lancaster University, 2012, Lancaster, UK, invited lecture.
-> 37. G.-U. Flechsig, Bioanalysis based on heated electrodes and selfpropelled nanomotors, University at Albany SUNY, 2012, Albany, NY, USA, invited lecture.
-> 38. G.-U. Flechsig, Biosensors based on DNA-SAMs and heated gold electrodes, University of Nottingham, 2012, Nottingham, UK, invited lecture.
-> 39. G.-U. Flechsig, Temperature effects in environmental and biochemical electroanalysis, New Mexico Tech, 2013, Socorro, NM, USA, invited lecture.
-> 40. G.-U. Flechsig, Voltammetric detection of DNA sequences in real samples using gold electrodes and osmium tetroxide labels, Masaryk University, 2013, Brno, Czech Republic, invited lecture.



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